These top highlights can function as a crowdsourced "tl;dr" -- although not every post enables them.
Incidentally, here maybe the medium is the message -- one person's highlight becomes a possible occasion for further discussion.
[p. 7] Thus Individuation starts with a double critique: on the one hand of the Aristotelian hylomorphic dualism of matter and form, on the other of the monistic reduction of nature to a fundamental substance.
[p. 9, fn 12] According to Simondon 'Nature' conceived as a macro-individual would be the silent and perfectly stable---dead---universe of maximum entropy; on the contrary, we are exclusively concerned with 'non-totalised' systems: 'Systems cannot be totalised, since the fact of considering them the sum of their elements spoils the awareness of what actually makes them systems: relative separation of the sets it contains, analogical structure, disparition in general, relational activity of information' (ILFI 234, n. 1).
[p. 14] at the psychical level 'we believe any thought, precisely as far as it is real, is a relation, i.e. it entails an historical aspect in its genesis' (ILFI 84)
[p. 15] Simondon's concepts, in fact, do not define any separate 'realms'---matter, living beings, psyche, society---traversed by individuals or any kind of substances of which individuals would be composed. On the contrary, they indicate 'phases', processes, whose dynamic composition continuously constitutes and modifies the configuration of individuals, as it happens within a magnetic and gravitational field, in which different forces and processes constitute an irregular and unstable space, full of potentials, which can modify or be modified by whatever---matter or energy---becomes part of it.
[p. 20] If knowledge can trace back the lines which allow for the interpretation of the world according to stable laws, it is not because in the subject some a priori forms of sensibility exist, the consistence of which with raw data derived from sensation would be inexplicable; this happens because being as a subject and being as an object come from the same primitive reality, and thought, which now seems to institute an inexplicable relation between the object and the subject, in effect continues the initial individuation.
[p. 20] What Simondon calls the 'analogical method' is in fact the method of invention, an operation both theoretical and practical, which lacks any guarantees, as Simondon himself reveals when defining his own philosophy as 'a dramatic theory of the becoming of being' (Simondon 1960, p. 755).
[p. 21, fn 31] 'It is only abstractly that one can speak of an absolute indeterminism (realisable through a complete internal resonance) or an absolute determinism (realisable through a complete reciprocal independence of chronology and topology). The general situation is a certain level of correlation between the chronology and topology of the system' (ILFI 148) ... 'Simondon's theory of individuation puts in relation the complexity of physical systems with morphogenetic processes' (Bontems 2010, p. 89).
[pp. 23-24] Simondon's philosophy of individuation entails a non-phenomenological 'split' between subject and object, which should be read against the backdrop of a different kind of separation. He colocates the split not between the finite conscience and its infinite distance from the real, but rather between different levels of reality and knowledge. [...] Human beings in fact refer to different levels of reality which depend on correspondent levels of knowledge and practises. It is as if living-man lived in-between different milieus without being able to make a synthesis of them. Here it is what Canguilhem points to: 'a general theory of the milieu of the human being as technician and scientist ... remains to be elaborated. (Canguilhem 1952)
[p. 25] The peculiarity of physical science as an instrument, is that it has allowed humans to include the shift between subjective milieus (Umwelt) and a geographical milieu (Umgebung) in a Welt which can---in line with principles---be adopted by the whole species to augment its predictive capacities.
[p. 25] In short, what we call reality, which we know and live in, would be [...] the intertwining of different milieus, none of which can claim ontological primacy. This unavoidable internal tension shifts the concept of 'geographical milieu'---against the mechanistic origin of the term milieu---to the original meaning of the concept, conceived in its relational meaning as what is 'between-two centres [entre-deux centres] (Canguilhem 1952, p. 130).
[p. 27] Simondon ... programattically dismantles the 'conceptual couples' (form/matter, active/passive, subject/object, liberty/necessity) which have for centuries grounded a whole series of false alternatives, either opposing the individual to its milieu or dissolving it into the latter.
Title: Joke-making Jews/jokes making Jews: Essays on humor and identity in American Jewish fiction.I don't find the document itself online, but cf. Joke-Making Jews, Jokes Making Jews: Humor and Identity in Abraham Cahan’s Yekl
Creator: Jason Paul. Steed
Contributor: Joseph McCullough; University of Nevada, Las Vegas.
Subjects: American literature -- 20th century;
Anecdotes; Comedy; Comedians -- United States; Sociology; United States -- Study and teaching; Thesis (PhD)
Is Part Of: 65-08A.
Description: Beginning from the premise that humor plays a prominent role in the construction of group and individual identities, as a social phenomenon and a simultaneously alienating and assimilating force, these essays explore and examine humor and its construction of American Jewish identity within the context of various works of American Jewish fiction. Though organized as "chapters," the essays do not build upon one another progressively, nor do they center on a unified thesis; rather, each is written to stand alone; however, each approaches the general subject of humor and identity in American Jewish fiction, and as a collection it is intended that the whole equal more than the sum of its parts. Following the Introduction, chapter two examines Abraham Cahan's Yekl and the relationship between humor and identity for the Jewish immigrant at the turn of the 20th century. Attention is also paid to the absences of humor, and how these are likewise capable of constructing identity. Chapter three raises questions regarding the ethics of humor, particularly when dealing with the Holocaust. It examines Saul Bellow's The Bellarosa Connection under the guiding question of "What is to be gained by reading this novella?"---with specific attention being given to the connective function of the novella's humor. Bernard Malamud's God's Grace is examined in chapter four, which seeks to read the novel as a retelling of an old Jewish joke, in the form of the story of Abraham and Isaac; Malamud's reversal of the story, and his use of absurdist humor, is read as an affirmation of humanism and Jewish identity. Chapter five examines the humor of Philip Roth and Woody Allen, as representatives of second-generation anxieties about Jewish identity in America. Then, chapters six and seven explore two possible responses to these anxieties. Chapter six looks at the works of the Coen brothers and asserts that Jewishness has been deliberately absented from their narratives; chapter seven looks at the works of Allegra Goodman and Nathan Englander and asserts that, in their fiction, a new, anxiety-free Jewish Self is being constructed, with humor playing a prominent role in this postassimilationism. Publisher: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 2004.
Physical Description: 171 p.
Creation Date: 2004
Digital Rights: Off-site users are required to register with CJH in order to access this dissertation
Notes: Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 65-08, Section: A, page: 2994.
Chair: Joseph McCullough.
Source: CJH ALEPH cjh digitool System Number: CJH_ALEPH000369040 cjh_digitool1157742
It is my thesis that the physical functioning of the living individual and the operation of some of the newer communication machines are precisely parallel in their analogous attempts to control entropy through feedback. Both of them have sensory receptors as one stage in their cycle of operation: that is, in both of them there exists a special apparatus for collecting information from the outer world at low energy levels, and for making it available in the operation of the individual or of the machine. In both cases these external messages are not taken neat, but through the internal transforming powers of the apparatus, whether it be alive or dead. The information is then turned into a new form available for the further stages of performance. In both the animal and the machine this performance is made to be effective on the outer world. In both of them, their performed action on the outer world, and not merely their intended action, is reported back to the central regulatory apparatus. This complex of behavior is ignored by the average man, and in particular does not play the role that it should in our habitual analysis of society; for just as individual physical responses may be seen from this point of view, so may the organic responses of society itself.
The notion of extracting social networks from literary texts offers a wealth of possible collaborations between computer scientists and literary experts. Studies about the nineteenth-century British novel, for instance, are often concerned with the nature of the community that surrounds the protagonist. Some theorists have suggested a relationship between the size of a community and the amount of dialogue that occurs, positing that “face to face time” diminishes as the number of characters in the novel grows. [...] We did not find this to be the case. Rather, we found a weak but positive correlation (r=.16) between the number of quotes in a novel and the number of characters (normalizing the quote count for text length). There was a stronger positive correlation (r=.50) between the number of unique speakers (those characters who speak at least once) and the normalized number of quotes, suggesting that larger networks have more conversations than smaller ones. (pp. 10-11, 38-39)
|Figure 2.1 "Automatically extracted conversation network for Jane Austen’s Mansfield Park."|